Mount Merapi, Indonesian Gunung Merapi, volcanic mountain peak located near the centre of the island of Java, Indonesia. The volcano is about 20 miles (32 km) north of Yogyakarta and somewhat farther south of Semarang.
Merapi (“Mountain of Fire”) rises to 9,551 feet (2,911 metres) and has steep slopes with dense vegetation on its lower flanks. It is the most active of Indonesia’s 130 active volcanoes. One of its largest eruptions occurred in 1006 and spread ash throughout Central Java. Other major eruptions were those of 1786, 1822, 1872, 1930, and 1976.
Almost half of Merapi’s eruptions have been accompanied by pyroclastic flows, or nuées ardentes, which are clouds of superheated gases and incandescent solid particles. In the eruption of Nov. 22, 1994, the release of a pyroclastic flow killed 64 people. A series of eruptions of the volcano in late 2010, which included pyroclastic flows, killed scores of people, injured dozens more, and forced tens of thousands to evacuate the area.